Oct. 16, 2020
Lithium Iron Phosphate Battery, the full name of Lithium Iron Phosphate Lithium Ion Battery, refers to lithium ion batteries that use lithium iron phosphate as the positive electrode material. Here are the battery naming rules in the industry. At this stage, we usually use the positive electrode. The material is used to name the battery. The negative electrode generally uses graphite as the negative electrode. For example, the ternary battery refers to the NCM or NCA used as the positive electrode material, and the lithium cobalt oxide battery is the lithium cobalt oxide used as the positive electrode material. Similarly, Lithium iron phosphate refers to the lithium iron phosphate material used in the positive electrode.
The positive electrode of lithium ion battery is lithium iron phosphate material, which has great advantages in safety performance and cycle life. These are also one of the most important technical indicators of power batteries. The 1C charging and discharging cycle life can reach 2000 times, puncture does not explode, and it is not easy to burn and explode when overcharged. Lithium iron phosphate cathode material makes large-capacity lithium-ion batteries easier to use in series. In terms of material principle, lithium iron phosphate is also an intercalation and deintercalation process, which is exactly the same as lithium cobaltate and lithium manganate.
Compared with lead-acid batteries, it has a good lifespan. Lead-acid batteries are generally 1-1.5 years; compared with nickel-hydrogen batteries, they have a higher working voltage; compared with nickel-cadmium batteries, they have a better environment Friendliness, this is also an important reason why lithium iron phosphate beat these batteries and set off a lithium battery storm.
The PO bond in the lithium iron phosphate crystal is stable and difficult to decompose. Even at high temperature or overcharge, it will not collapse and heat up like lithium cobalt oxide or form strong oxidizing substances. The decomposition temperature of lithium iron phosphate is about 600 ℃, so Have good security. Although there have been burning and explosions in the case of overcharging, the safety of overcharging has been greatly improved compared with ordinary liquid electrolyte lithium cobalt oxide batteries and ternary batteries.
The cycle life of a lead-acid battery is about 300 times, up to about 500 times, while a lithium iron phosphate power battery has a cycle life of more than 2000 times, and the standard charge (0.2C, 5 hours) use can reach 2000 times. Lead-acid batteries of the same quality are "new half a year, half a year old, and half a year repaired", which is 1 to 1.5 years at most, while lithium iron phosphate batteries are used under the same conditions, and the theoretical life span will reach 7 to 8 years. . Considering comprehensively, the performance-price ratio is theoretically more than 4 times that of lead-acid batteries. High-current discharge can quickly charge and discharge high current 2C. Under the special charger, the battery can be fully charged within 40 minutes of 1.5C charging, and the starting current can reach 2C, but lead-acid batteries have no such performance.
The electric heating peak of lithium iron phosphate can reach 350℃-500℃, while lithium manganate and lithium cobaltate are only around 200℃. Wide operating temperature range (-20C--+75C), with high temperature resistance, lithium iron phosphate electric heating peak can reach 350℃-500℃, while lithium manganate and lithium cobaltate are only around 200℃.
It has a larger capacity than ordinary batteries (lead-acid, etc.). It is known from the capacity density of the battery that the energy density of a lead-acid battery is about 40WH/kg. The mainstream lithium iron phosphate battery on the market has an energy density of 90WH/ Above kg.
Rechargeable batteries work under conditions that are often fully charged and not discharged, and the capacity will quickly fall below the rated capacity value. This phenomenon is called the memory effect. Like nickel-metal hydride and nickel-cadmium batteries, there is memory, but lithium iron phosphate batteries do not have this phenomenon (lithium-ion batteries generally have no memory effect). No matter what state the battery is in, it can be charged and used without having to discharge it first.
The volume of a lithium iron phosphate battery of the same specification and capacity is 2/3 of the volume of a lead-acid battery, and its weight is 1/3 of that of a lead-acid battery, and its energy density is several times that of a lead-acid battery.
The battery is generally considered to be free of any heavy metals and rare metals (the nickel-hydrogen battery requires rare metals), non-toxic (SGS certification), non-polluting, in line with European RoHS regulations, and a green battery. An important reason why lithium batteries are favored by the industry is environmental considerations.
But please face it squarely. Lithium batteries belong to the new energy industry, but they cannot avoid the problem of heavy metal pollution. Lead, arsenic, cadmium, mercury, chromium, etc. in the processing of metal materials may be released into dust and water. The battery itself is a chemical substance, so there may be two kinds of pollution: one is the pollution of process excrement in the production engineering; the other is the pollution of the battery after it is scrapped.
At present, the most promising cathode materials used in power lithium-ion batteries are modified lithium manganate (LiMn2O4), lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) and lithium nickel cobalt manganate (Li(Ni,Co,Mn)O2) ternary material. Due to the lack of cobalt resources and the high content of nickel and cobalt and the large price fluctuations, it is generally believed that it is difficult to become the mainstream of power-type lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles, but it can be compared with spinel manganese acid. Lithium is mixed and used within a certain range.
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